Diego de la Concepción Diego Rivera was a well-known Mexican painter who was born Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodrguez on December 8, 1886, and died on November 24, 1957.
His enormous frescoes were instrumental in starting the mural movement in Mexican and global art.
Rivera produced murals between 1922 and 1953 in a variety of locations, including Mexico City, Chapingo, and Cuernavaca in Mexico; San Francisco, Detroit, and New York City in the United States.
Before he finished his 27-mural series known as the Detroit Industry Murals, a retrospective exhibition of his works was staged in 1931 at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
Rivera had four wives, a large family, at least one of whom was a natural daughter. His son, who was his sole kid, passed away at the age of two. His third wife was Frida Kahlo, a fellow Mexican artist with whom he had a turbulent marriage that lasted until her passing. His agent was his fourth and last wife.
The Mexican government designated Rivera’s creations as monumentos historicos because of their significance in the nation’s art history. As of 2018, Rivera is the Latin American artist whose work has fetched the highest auction price.
A record-breaking collection owned by Peggy and David Rockefeller included the 1931 artwork The Rivals, which sold for $9.76 million USD.
Diego Rivera Personal life
On December 8, 1886, a wealthy couple, Mara del Pilar Barrientos and Diego Rivera Acosta, welcomed twin boys into the world in Guanajuato, Mexico. Two years after their birth, his twin brother Carlos passed away.
According to rumors, his mother Mara del Pilar Barrientos had Spanish ancestors who were compelled to convert from Judaism to Catholicism in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Despite not having been reared in the Jewish faith and writing in 1935 that “My Jewishness is the dominant element in my life,” Rivera thought that his Jewish lineage affected his art and provided him “sympathy with the downtrodden masses.” Spanish, Amerindian, African, Italian, Jewish, Russian, and Portuguese ancestry were all represented in Diego.
Three years after the death of his twin brother, Rivera started sketching. His parents erected chalkboards and canvas on the walls to encourage him after he was seen drawing on the home’s walls.
Diego Rivera Marriages and families
Rivera met pre-Revolutionary Russian Empire artist Angelina Beloff after relocating to Paris. Diego (1916–1918), a son they had after getting married in 1911, died at an early age.
The artist Maria Vorobieff-Stebelska, with whom Rivera was involved at the time, gave birth to a daughter named Marika Rivera in 1918 or 1919.
After returning to Mexico, Rivera divorced Beloff and wed Guadalupe Marn as his second wife in June 1922. Ruth and Guadalupe were their two daughters.
When he first met Frida Kahlo in Mexico, he was still married. They got involved in a passionate relationship, and on August 21, 1929, Rivera married Kahlo after divorcing Marn. She was 22 while he was 42.
They divorced in 1939 due to their shared infidelity and his volatile temper, but they remarried on December 8, 1940, in San Francisco, California.
On July 29, 1955, Rivera married Emma Hurtado, his agent since 1946, a year after Kahlo’s passing.
Later in life, Rivera split his time between Mexico and the United States. On November 24, 1957, Rivera passed away at the age of 70. He was laid to rest in Mexico City’s Panteón de Dolores.
Diego Rivera Beliefs
Rivera rejected religion. Ignacio Ramrez is shown holding a sign that reads, “God does not exist” in his artwork Dreams of a Sunday in the Alameda.
Rivera refused to have the inscription taken out despite the uproar this piece provoked. Before Rivera consented to remove the message, the picture was not seen for nine years.
I am an atheist, and I view religions as a type of collective neurosis, therefore I do not need to hide behind Don Ignacio Ramrez to assert that “God does not exist,” he said.
Art education and circle
At the Academy of San Carlos in Mexico City, Rivera studied art beginning at the age of eleven. Teodoro A. Dehesa Méndez, the governor of the State of Veracruz, offered to pay for his tuition to complete his studies in Europe.
Rivera first traveled to Madrid, Spain in 1907 after arriving in Europe to study under Eduardo Chicharro.
From there, he traveled to Paris, France, where young authors and artists from Europe and America congregated in modest apartments in Montparnasse. His friends attended La Ruche, where Amedeo Modigliani, an Italian artist, created a portrait of him in 1914.
Ilya Ehrenburg, Chaim Soutine, Modigliani and his wife Jeanne Hébuterne, Max Jacob, gallery owner Léopold Zborowski, and Moise Kisling were among his close friends.
In her 1962 work Homage to Friends from Montparnasse, Marie Vorobieff-Stebelska (Marevna), a former lover of Rivera, paid tribute to the group.
During those years, a number of well-known young painters were experimenting with the Cubism movement, which was founded by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Rivera eagerly embraced this new look between 1913 and 1917.
With the help of huge, bold color patches and straightforward forms, Rivera transitioned toward Post-Impressionism around 1917, influenced by the works of Paul Cézanne. He was able to exhibit his paintings at various exhibits as they started to garner interest.
In his book, Rivera asserted that he committed cannibalism in Mexico in 1904, combining funds with others to “purchase cadavers from the city morgue” and in particular “relish women’s brains in vinaigrette.” This assertion has been seen as either factually dubious or a sophisticated fabrication.
In his memoirs, he stated: “I believe that eating human flesh will be acceptable when man builds a civilization that is superior to the mechanized but still primitive one he has at the moment. Because at that point, man will have abandoned all of his superstitions and absurd taboos.
Diego Rivera Career in Mexico
In 1920, Rivera left France and traveled through Italy to study its art, notably Renaissance frescoes, at the urging of Alberto J. Pani, the Mexican ambassador to France.
Rivera returned to Mexico in 1921 to participate in José Vasconcelos’ government-sponsored Mexican mural scheme when he was appointed Minister of Education.Also see Mexican mural art.
The show featured French artist Jean Charlot as well as Mexican artists José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Rufino Tamayo.
He created his first important mural Creation in the Bolvar Auditorium of the National Preparatory School in Mexico City in January 1922 while trying using encaustic and protecting himself with a revolver from right-wing students.
In the autumn of 1922, Rivera participated in the founding of the Revolutionary Union of Technical Workers, Painters and Sculptors, and later that year he joined the Mexican Communist Party including its Central Committee.
His murals, subsequently painted in fresco only, dealt with Mexican society and reflected the country’s 1910 Revolution. Rivera developed his own native style based on large, simplified figures and bold colors with an Aztec influence clearly present in murals at the Secretariat of Public Education in Mexico City begun in September 1922, intended to consist of one hundred and twenty-four frescoes, and finished in 1928.
Rivera’s art work, in a fashion similar to the steles of the Maya, tells stories. The mural En el Arsenal (In the Arsenal) shows on the right-hand side Tina Modotti holding an ammunition belt and facing Julio Antonio Mella, in a light hat, and Vittorio Vidali behind in a black hat.
However, the En el Arsenal detail shown does not include the right-hand side described nor any of the three individuals mentioned; instead it shows the left-hand side with Frida Kahlo handing out munitions.
Leon Trotsky lived with Rivera and Kahlo for several months while exiled in Mexico.
Some of Rivera’s most famous murals are featured at the National School of Agriculture (Chapingo Autonomous University of Agriculture) at Chapingo near Texcoco (1925–1927), in the Cortés Palace in Cuernavaca (1929–30), and the National Palace in Mexico City (1929–30, 1935).
The main hallway and a hallway at the Chapingo Autonomous University of Agriculture (UACh) both feature murals by Rivera. Between 1923 and 1927, he also completed a fresco work in the campus chapel with the English title Fertile Land.
The representation of a hammer and sickle connected by a star in the chapel’s soffit is one way that Fertile Land illustrates the revolutionary conflicts of Mexico’s peasant (farmers) and working classes (industry).
A “propagandist” in the painting points to another hammer and sickle.
The mural features a woman with an ear of corn in each hand, which art critic Antonio Rodriguez describes as evocative of the Aztec goddess of maize in his book Canto a la Tierra: Los murales de Diego Rivera en la Capilla de Chapingo.
The corpses of revolutionary heroes Emiliano Zapata and Otilio Montano are shown in graves, their bodies fertilizing the maize field above.
A sunflower in the center of the scene “glorifies those who died for an ideal and are reborn, transfigured, into the fertile cornfield of the nation”, writes Rodrigues.
Guadalupe Marin, Rivera’s wife, is also shown in the mural as a pregnant naked goddess, while Guadalupe Rivera y Marin is shown as a cherub. Although the mural was significantly harmed after the earthquake, it has since been restored and touched up, and it is still in perfect condition.
In the autumn of 1927, Rivera went to Moscow, Soviet Union, having accepted a government invitation to take part in the celebration of the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution.
The following year, while still in the Soviet Union, he met American Alfred H. Barr, Jr., who would soon become Rivera’s friend and patron. Barr was the founding director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
Although commissioned to paint a mural for the Red Army Club in Moscow, in 1928 Rivera was ordered by authorities to leave the country because, he suspected, of “resentment on the part of certain Soviet artists.” He returned to Mexico.
In 1929, following the assassination of former president Álvaro Obregón the previous year, the government suppressed the Mexican Communist Party. That year Rivera was expelled from the party because of his suspected Trotskyite sympathies.
In addition, observers noted that his 1928 mural In the Arsenal includes the figures of communists Tina Modotti, Cuban Julio Antonio Mella, and Italian Vittorio Vidali. After Mella was murdered in January 1929, allegedly by Stalinist assassin Vidali, Rivera was accused of having had advance knowledge of a planned attack.
After divorcing his third wife, Guadalupe (Lupe) Marin, Rivera married the much younger Frida Kahlo in August 1929. They had met when she was a student, and she was 22 years old when they married; Rivera was 42.
Also in 1929, American journalist Ernestine Evans’s book The Frescoes of Diego Rivera, was published in New York City; it was the first English-language book on the artist.
In December, Rivera accepted a commission from the American Ambassador to Mexico to paint murals in the Palace of Cortés in Cuernavaca, where the US had a consulate.
In September 1930, Rivera accepted a commission by architect Timothy L. Pflueger for two works related to his design projects in San Francisco. Rivera and Kahlo went to the city in November. Rivera painted a mural for the City Club of the San Francisco Stock Exchange for US$2,500.
He also completed a fresco for the California School of Fine Art, a work that was later relocated to what is now the Diego Rivera Gallery at the San Francisco Art Institute.
During this period, Rivera and Kahlo worked and lived at the studio of Ralph Stackpole, who had recommended Rivera to Pflueger. Rivera met Helen Wills Moody, a notable American tennis player, who modeled for his City Club mural.
In November 1931, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City mounted a retrospective exhibition of Rivera’s work; Kahlo attended with him.
Between 1932 and 1933, Rivera completed a major commission: twenty-seven fresco panels, entitled Detroit Industry, on the walls of an inner court at the Detroit Institute of Arts. Part of the cost was paid by Edsel Ford, scion of the entrepreneur.
During the McCarthyism of the 1950s, a large sign was placed in the courtyard defending the artistic merit of the murals while attacking his politics as “detestable.”
His mural Man at the Crossroads, originally a three-paneled work, begun as a commission for John D. Rockefeller, Jr. in 1933 for the Rockefeller Center in New York City, was later destroyed.
Because it included a portrait of Vladimir Lenin, former leader of the Soviet Union and Marxist pro-worker content, Rockefeller’s son, the press, and some of the public protested, but the decision to destroy it was made by the management company.
Anti-Communism ran high in some American circles, although many others in this period of the Great Depression had been drawn to the movement as offering hope to labor.
When Diego refused to remove Lenin from the painting, he was ordered to leave the US. One of Diego’s assistants managed to take a few photographs of the work so Diego was able to later recreate it.
American poet Archibald MacLeish wrote six “irony-laden” poems about the mural. The New Yorker magazine published E. B. White’s light poem, “I paint what I see: A ballad of artistic integrity”, also in response to the controversy with number of sponsors taking offense to it.
As a result of the negative publicity, officials in Chicago cancelled their commission for Rivera to paint a mural for the Chicago World’s Fair.
Rivera issued a press statement, saying that he would use the remaining money from his commission at Rockefeller Center to repaint the same mural, over and over, wherever he was asked, until the money ran out.
He had been paid in full although the mural was reportedly destroyed. There have been rumors that the mural was covered over rather than removed and destroyed, but this has not been confirmed.
In December 1933, Rivera returned to Mexico. He repainted Man at the Crossroads in 1934 in the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City, calling this version Man, Controller of the Universe.
On June 5, 1940, invited again by Pflueger, Rivera returned for the last time to the United States to paint a ten-panel mural for the Golden Gate International Exposition in San Francisco.
His work, Pan American Unity was completed November 29, 1940. Rivera painted in front of attendees at the Exposition, which had already opened.
He received US$1,000 per month and US$1,000 for travel expenses. The mural includes representations of two of Pflueger’s architectural works, and portraits of Rivera’s wife, Frida Kahlo, woodcarver Dudley C. Carter, and actress Paulette Goddard. She is shown holding Rivera’s hand as they plant a white tree together.
Rivera’s assistants on the mural included Thelma Johnson Streat, a pioneer African-American artist, dancer, and textile designer. The mural and its archives are now held by City College of San Francisco.
In 1946-47, Rivera painted A Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in the Alameda Park, a fresco that featured a fully elaborated figure of La Calavera Catrina.
This character, which was created by José Guadalupe Posada, originally consisted of a print depicting the head and shoulders of a skeletal woman in a big hat.
Rivera endowed his Catrina figure with indigenous features and thus transformed her into a nationalist icon. Catrina is the most common image associated with Day of the Dead.
Membership in AMORC
AMORC, the Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis, was established by American occultist Harvey Spencer Lewis, and Rivera joined it in 1926.
One of the founding members of AMORC’s Mexico City lodge, named Quetzalcoatl after an old indigenous deity, was Rivera in 1926. He created a Quetzalcoatl painting for the neighborhood temple.
Rivera attempted to reenter the Mexican Communist Party in 1954. He had been banished in part for his backing of Trotsky, who had been exiled and murdered in Mexico years before.
Rivera was asked to defend his involvement with the AMORC. At the time, the Mexican Communist Party forbade members from participating in Freemasonry and viewed AMORC as having an uncanny resemblance to Freemasonry.
In response to questions, Rivera stated that he wanted to infiltrate a typical “Yankee” group on behalf of Communism by joining AMORC.
He did assert, however, that AMORC was “essentially materialist, insofar as it only admits different states of energy and matter, and is based on ancient Egyptian occult knowledge from Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti.”
Representation in other media
In a number of movies, Diego Rivera has been portrayed. In the films Cradle Will Rock (1999), Frida (2002), and Eisenstein in Guanajuato (2015), he was portrayed by Rubén Blades, Alfred Molina, and José Montini (in a brief cameo). The main protagonists in Barbara Kingsolver’s book The Lacuna are Rivera, Kahlo, and Leon Trotsky.
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (assumed to have lived from 29 September 1547 to 22 April 1616 NS) was an Early Modern Spanish author who is regarded as one of the finest novels in the world and the greatest writer in the Spanish language.
His most famous work, Don Quixote, is frequently referred to as the first modern novel as well as “the first great novel of world literature.”
It was chosen as the “most meaningful book of all time” from among the “best and most important works in world literature” in a 2002 survey of almost 100 well-known authors.
Many of his early works were lost as a result of the fact that he spent a large portion of his life in poverty and obscurity. Nevertheless, the fact that Spanish is frequently referred to as “the language of Cervantes” is a testament to his literary influence and contribution.
an occurrence in Robert Hillingford’s Don Quixote (1870) narrative. Cervantes was compelled to leave Spain in 1569 and relocate to Rome, where he took a job in a cardinal’s household.
He joined a Spanish Navy infantry regiment in 1570, and in October 1571, he was severely wounded at the Battle of Lepanto. He was a soldier until 1575, when Barbary pirates kidnapped him; after spending five years in prison, he was freed and sent back to Madrid.
While working as a purchasing agent and then as a government tax collector, he continued to write novels, including La Galatea, which was published in 1585.
Don Quixote’s first and second parts were released in 1605 and 1615, respectively. Other works include the Viaje del Parnaso (Journey to Parnassus), a lengthy poem, the 12 Novelas Ejemplares (Exemplary Novels), and the Ocho Comedias y ocho Entremeses (Eight Plays and Eight Interludes).
The Travails of Persiles and Sigismunda was published posthumously in 1616 under the title Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda.
Despite his later fame, many details of Cervantes’s life, such as his name, upbringing, and appearance, are unknown. Despite the fact that he signed himself Cerbantes, his printers used the more popular version, Cervantes.
Later in life, instead of the more common Cortinas, which is named after his mother, Cervantes chose Saavedra, the name of a distant relative.
But historian Luce López-Baralt asserted that it derives from the Arabic word shaibedraa, which in dialect means “one-handed” and was used as a nickname for him while he was being held captive.
His religious upbringing is a further point of contention. It has been hypothesized that Cervantes’s mother and father may both have been New Christians. Although the family may have had some claim to nobility, Anthony Cascardi notes that they frequently struggled with money.
Furthermore, it is quite likely that they were Jewish converts to Catholicism known as conversos. This meant having much less prospects than those enjoyed by members of the “Old Christian” caste in Cervantes’s day in Spain, where there were official suspicions and social mistrust.
It is generally agreed that Miguel de Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares around September 29, 1547. He was the second child of barber-surgeon Rodrigo de Cervantes and Leonor de Cortinas, who lived from approximately 1520 to 1593. Rodrigo was born in Córdoba, Andalusia, the son of renowned lawyer Juan de Cervantes.
Rodrigo regularly relocated, was frequently in debt, or was looking for job. Leonor, who was born in Arganda del Rey and passed away in October 1593 at the age of 73, is mentioned in surviving legal records as having seven children, being literate and intelligent, and having a great sense of business.
She sustained the family on her own while Rodrigo was imprisoned for debt from October 1553 to April 1554. When Seville was experiencing a boom in the economy, Rodrigo oversaw the rental properties for his older brother Andres, a junior magistrate.
It is assumed that Cervantes attended the Jesuit college in Seville, where playwright Pedro Pablo Acevedo, a Jesuit, taught there after relocating from Cordoba in 1561. But according to court documents, his father incurred new debt, and the family relocated to Madri in 1566.
Military service and captivity
A warrant for Miguel de Cervantes’ arrest, dated September 15, 1569, was found by a biographer in the 19th century. He was suspected of injuring Antonio de Sigura in a duel.
It was contested at the time, largely because such conduct was unworthy of such a famous author, but it is today recognized as the most likely cause of Cervantes’ departure from Madrid.
He ultimately arrived in Rome, where he was employed by Giulio Acquaviva, an Italian bishop who had lived in Madrid from 1568 to 1569 and had been elected a cardinal in 1570. Spain joined the Holy League, a coalition established to support the Venetian Republic, at the start of the Ottoman-Venetian War in 1570–1573 (Ottoman-Venetian War).
Going to Naples, which was then a part of the Crown of Aragon, may have been Cervantes’ attempt to have his arrest order revoked. Cervantes received a commission under the Marquis of Santa Cruz from Alvaro de Sande, a family friend who served as the military commander in Naples.
At some point, his younger brother Rodrigo arrived in Naples to join him. Cervantes set sail on the Marquesa in September 1571 as a member of the Holy League fleet under the command of Don John of Austria, Phillip II of Spain’s half-illegitimate brother.
On October 7, they won the Battle of Lepanto by defeating the Ottoman fleet. Despite having malaria, according to his own account, Cervantes was assigned command of a 12-man skiff, a small boat designed to attack enemy galleys.
For the rest of his life, Cervantes went by the nickname “El Manco de Lepanto” (English: The one-handed man of Lepanto, The one-armed man of Lepanto), thanks to the 120 wounds he sustained during the battle.
Cervantes suffered three separate wounds, two in the chest and one that left his left arm useless. To the end of his life, he was proud of the things he did in Lepanto, and Don John gave him no less than four different pay raises.
Two years before his death in 1616, Cervantes claimed to have “lost the movement of the left hand for the glory of the right” in Journey to Parnassus.
The only source for his infirmity, as with so many other things, is Cervantes himself, and analysts point to his propensity for self-praise as evidence. But they were severe enough to land him a six-month stay in the Messina Civic Hospital in Sicily.
His chest wounds were still not fully healed in February 1573, according to archives, despite the fact that he returned to duty in July 1572.
He spent much of his time in Naples and accompanied excursions to Corfu and Navarino. He also participated in the Ottomans’ 1573 takeover of Tunis and La Goulette, which they later retook in 1574.
Despite Lepanto, the Ottomans ultimately won the war, and Spain’s loss of Tunis was a military catastrophe. Cervantes left for Palermo, where the Duke of Sessa paid him off and offered him letters of recommendation.
Cervantes and Rodrigo left Naples on the galley Sol in early September 1575. On September 26, as they neared Barcelona, their ship was captured by Ottoman corsairs, and the brothers were taken to Algiers to be sold as slaves or, in some cases, held for ransom if doing so would be more profitable than being sold as slaves. In 1577, Rodrigo was set free, but Cervantes had to stay since his family could not pay the ransom.
Later life and death
Cervantes lost two possible patrons during his captivity—Don John and the Duke of Sessa—while the Spanish economy was in shambles.
This made it difficult for him to obtain work; little is known about his activities prior to 1584, with the exception of the time he spent working as an intelligence agent in North Africa from 1581 to 1582.
In April of that year, Cervantes visited Esquivias, to help arrange the affairs of his recently deceased friend and minor poet, Pedro Lainez.
There he met Catalina de Salazar y Palacios (c. 1566 – 1626), eldest daughter of the widowed Catalina de Palacios; her husband died leaving only debts, but the elder Catalina owned some land of her own.
This may be why in December 1584, Cervantes married her daughter, then between 15 and 18 years old. The first use of the name Cervantes Saavedra appears in 1586, on documents related to their marriage.
His daughter Isabel, who was not his biological child, was born in November just before this. They reportedly kept it from her husband, Ana Franca, the wife of a Madrid innkeeper, although Cervantes confessed paternity.
He asked his sister Magdalena to care after their daughter after Ana Franca passed away in 1598.
In 1587, Cervantes was appointed as a government purchasing agent, then became a tax collector in 1592. He was briefly jailed several times for ‘irregularities’, but quickly released.
Several applications for positions in Spanish America were rejected, although modern critics note images of the colonies appear in his work.
He spent much of his time in Seville from 1596 to 1600 before moving back to Madrid in 1606 where he spent the rest of his life. He eventually obtained some financial assistance from the Count of Lemos, despite not traveling with Lemos’ retinue to Naples when the latter was named Viceroy in 1608.
It is generally assumed that Cervantes passed away on April 22, 1616 (NS); the symptoms described, particularly acute thirst, correspond to diabetes, which was then incurable.
In accordance with his will, Cervantes was buried in the Convent of the Barefoot Trinitarians, in central Madrid. His remains went missing when moved during rebuilding work at the convent in 1673, and in 2014, historian Fernando de Prado launched a project to rediscover them.
The forensic anthropologist overseeing the search, Francisco Etxeberria, announced the finding of caskets containing bone fragments and a portion of a board with the letters “M.C.” in January 2015.
On March 17, 2015, it was determined that they belonged to Cervantes, along with his wife and other others, based on evidence of injuries sustained in Lepanto. In June 2015, they were formally reburied in a public ceremony.
There isn’t a known authentic Cervantes portrait. Although both names were inserted subsequently, Juan de Jáuregui is the one who is most frequently linked to the author.
It is said that Cervantes is ‘maybe’ depicted in the El Greco work Retrato de un caballero desconocido (Portrait of an Unknown Gentleman), however there is no proof of this.
It has been speculated that Cervantes might be shown in El Greco’s painting The Nobleman with his Hand on His Chest. However, the Prado itself states that “without a doubt, the most convincing suggestion has connected this figure with the Second Marquis of Montemayor, Juan de Silva y de Ribera,” a contemporary of El Greco who was appointed military commander of the Alcázar in Toledo by Philip II, while mentioning, in passing, that “specific names have been proposed for the sitter, including that of Cervantes,” and even “that the painting could be a self-portrait [of El Greco].
Based on his ideas, Luis de Madrazo created the 1859 portrait that may be found at the Biblioteca Nacional de Espaa. Spanish euro coins in the denominations of €0.10, €0.20, and €0.50 feature an image based on a 1905 bust.
Literary career and legacy
Cervantes claimed to have written over 20 plays, such as El trato de Argel, based on his experiences in captivity. Such works were extremely short-lived, and even Lope de Vega, the best-known playwright of the day, could not live on their proceeds.
In 1585, he published La Galatea, a conventional pastoral romance that received little contemporary notice; despite promising to write a sequel, he never did so.
Aside from these, and some poems, by 1605, Cervantes had not been published for 20 years. In Don Quixote, he challenged a form of literature that had been a favourite for more than a century, explicitly stating his purpose was to undermine ‘vain and empty’ chivalric romances.
His portrayal of real life, and use of everyday speech in a literary context was considered innovative, and proved instantly popular. First published in January 1605, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza featured in masquerades held to celebrate the birth of Philip IV on 8 April.
He finally achieved a degree of financial security, while its popularity led to demands for a sequel. In the foreword to his 1613 work, Novelas ejemplares, dedicated to his patron, the Count of Lemos, Cervantes promises to produce one, but was pre-empted by an unauthorised version published in 1614, published under the name Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda.
It is possible this delay was deliberate, to ensure support from his publisher and reading public; Cervantes finally produced the second part of Don Quixote in 1615.
The two parts of Don Quixote are different in focus, but similar in their clarity of prose and their realism. The first was more comic, and had greater popular appeal.
The second part is often considered more sophisticated and complex, with a greater depth of characterisation and philosophical insight.
In addition to this, he produced a series of works between 1613 and his death in 1616. They include a collection of tales titled Exemplary Novels.
This was followed by Viaje del Parnaso, Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes, and Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, completed just before his death, and published posthumously in January 1617.
Cervantes was rediscovered by English writers in the mid-18th century. The literary editor John Bowle argued that Cervantes was as significant as any of the Greek and Roman authors then popular, and published an annotated edition in 1781. Now viewed as a significant work, at the time it proved a failure.
Sigmund Freud claimed he learnt Spanish to read Cervantes in the original; he particularly admired The Dialogue of the Dogs (El coloquio de los perros), from Exemplary Tales, in which two dogs, Cipión and Berganza, share their stories; as one talks, the other listens, occasionally making comments.From 1871 to 1881, Freud and his close friend, Eduard Silberstein, wrote letters to each other, using the pennames Cipión and Berganza.
Cervantina, a celebration of his plays by the Compaa Nacional de Teatro Clásico in Madrid, was produced in 2016 to mark the 400th anniversary of the author’s death.
The Miguel de Cervantes Virtual Library, the largest digital collection of Spanish-language historical and literary works in the world, is named after the author. Man of La Mancha, the well-known musical play of 1965, was inspired by the author.
Rashel Kolaneci is well-known in Albania and excels in the fields of acting, television, and social media influencer. She first gained notoriety through the sharing of her Instagram modeling images, and since then, she has made a name for herself as a successful kickboxing champion.
By hosting the well-known Albanian TV program “Xing me Ermalin” and appearing on it, Kolaneci rose to prominence. She has also played “Sekretarja” in the film “Falco” and hosted other TV programs including “Bricijapi.”
Rashel Kolaneci has a variety of talents, but she is best known for her social media presence. She has a huge following across several platforms.
As of 2023, Rashel Kolaneci will be 26 years old. She was born on June 22, 1997, and the sign of her zodiac is Cancer. The online celebrity is from Albania. Albania’s Tirana is where she was born.
She resides in her native nation. The actress is of White (Albanian) ethnicity and belongs to the nation of Albania. Her faith is in Christ.
A well-known media figure, Raimus is. She works as an actress, television personality, and social media influencer. After sharing her photos on Instagram, where she has over 1.5 million followers, she gained notoriety. Brands asked her for brand endorsement work after noticing her following on the platform.
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Although she has thousands of followers on Facebook, she is not particularly active there, and she has not yet been verified. She also has an 841K-subscriber YouTube channel.
The majority of Rashel Kolaneci’s YouTube videos are brief and resemble the ones she uploads to TikTok. Raimus is an actress in addition to using social media. She acted as the secretary in the 2019 film Falco. She is a kickboxer and the host of the television program Shiko Kush Luan.
The model’s net worth is unknown according to official sources. She reportedly has a net worth of between $2 and $4 million, though.
The social media influencer and actress is not wed. She prefers to keep information about her romantic relationships out of the public eye and is rumored to be single right now.
Raimus is 165 centimeters tall and weighs roughly 121 pounds, or 55 kilograms. She is 5′ 5″. She has dark brown hair and brown eyes, and her breast, waist, and hip measurements are 36-26-40 inches or 91-66-102 centimeters.
One of the young women who has found success and wealth on social media is Rashel Kolaneci. She is one of Albania’s leading television hosts and social media influencers.
One of the young women who has found success and wealth on social media is Rashel Kolaneci. She is one of Albania’s leading television hosts and social media influencers.
Ileana D’Cruz is a Portuguese actress of Indian descent who was born on November 1, 1987 and primarily works in Telugu and Hindi movies.
D’Cruz was born in Mumbai and lived in Goa for the majority of her childhood. In 2006, D’Cruz made her cinematic debut with the Telugu film Devadasu, which was a box office hit and earned her the Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut – South.
With the release of popular films like Pokiri (2006), Rakhi (2006), Munna (2007), Jalsa (2008), Kick (2009), and Julayi (2012), D’Cruz established herself as a top actress in Telugu cinema.
For the films Pokiri, Jalsa, and Kick, D’Cruz received a nomination for a Filmfare Award for Best Actress – Telugu. She made her film debut in Tamil with Kedi (2006) and starred in Shankar’s financially successful Nanban (2012).
With Anurag Basu’s comedy-drama Barfi!, which she won the Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut for, D’Cruz made her Hindi film debut in 2012.
Since then, she has starred as the main heroine in hit movies like Main Tera Hero (2014), Rustom (2016), and Raid (2018). She has won numerous honors, including a Filmfare Award and a Filmfare Award South.
In addition to her work as an actress, D’Cruz is a well-known celebrity brand and product endorsement.
Ileana D’Cruz Bio
D’Cruz was born on 1 November 1987 in Mahim, Mumbai, to a Catholic father and a Muslim mother. She rejects religion. When she was ten years old, her family relocated to Parra, Goa.
In January 2003, she created her first modeling portfolio, which D’Cruz referred to as a “disaster”. The next year, she received advertising from Electrolux, Emami Talc, and Fair & Lovely thanks to more photo shoots and runway performances that led to the creation of a second portfolio.
She gained prominence and had multiple invitations to act in feature films thanks to the latter, which was directed by Rakesh Roshan.
D’Cruz became a citizen of Portugal in 2014. She asserted that Portugal was a part of her genealogy in an interview with Verve in 2017.
With Australian photographer Andrew Kneebone, she was involved in relationship with him. There were rumors that they were already wed. Indian media reported the couple’s breakup on August 28, 2019.
On April 18, 2023, D’Cruz announced her first pregnancy on Instagram while keeping the identity of the father a secret. The media conjectured that the father might be Sebastian Laurent Michel, Katrina Kaif’s brother, whom D’Cruz had been dating for a while.
Ileana D’Cruz Career
In 2005, D’Cruz was called for an audition by director Teja, but the project was cancelled. She made her feature film debut in the Telugu language romance film Devadasu (2006), directed by Y. V. S. Chowdary.
She underwent acting classes with Aruna Bhikshu, before starting to work on the film. She recalls that during filming she felt “pressured … almost cried and didn’t want to go further”, but went ahead after her mother encouraged her, giving her “the lecture of a lifetime at 3 am.” A review from Indiaglitz stated that she “has chiseled features and a figure to die-for.”
Devadasu became the year’s first commercially successful Telugu film, eventually grossing around ₹140 million, whilst earning D’Cruz the Filmfare Award for Best Female Debutant.
She next appeared in the gangster film Pokiri in which she portrayed an aerobics teacher, who is harassed by a corrupt police officer. The film was a high financial success, emerging as the highest-grossing Telugu film at the time.
She made her Tamil-language film debut in Kedi (2006). Although the film did not do so well at the box-office, D’Cruz remained too busy to accept all the film roles offered to her.
Her Telugu film Khatarnak (2006) in which she acted opposite Ravi Teja did not do as well as expected, which has been attributed to her glamorous appearance not going down well with the audience. She subsequently experienced a breakthrough in her career as her following releases Rakhi (2006) and Munna (2007) proved critically and financially successful.
Ileana D’Cruz Breakthrough
D’Cruz made an appearance in the 2007 movie Aata.She got praise for her portrayal of Satya, a college student who is fleeing the corrupt son of the home minister who is after her because she is organizing a demonstration and demanding that he be held accountable for his misdeeds. Satya is on the run from him. She played the female protagonist in Trivikram Srinivas’ action movie Jalsa from the year 2008.
D’Cruz received largely positive remarks, with critics citing that she looked “pretty”, “damn cool”, and “every bit chic and stunning throughout the film”, while being later awarded the Santosham Award, one of five awards for Jalsa, and the South Scope Style Award, besides garnering a nomination for the Best Actress – Telugu at the 56th Filmfare Awards South.
Her first 2009 release, titled Kick, was likewise declared a box office success, becoming one of the highest-grossing films that year.
Later that year she starred in the films Rechipo and Y. V. S. Choudary’s Saleem both of which performed poorly at the box office.
In 2011, D’Cruz released two albums. Shakthi, her first movie that year, featured her in the lead female character. Together with Jr. NTR, she performed on stage for the audio release event of this movie as a part of its marketing campaign.
At $250,000,000, the socio-fantasy movie was the most expensive Telugu production ever. Nenu Naa Rakshasi, her subsequent release, was her second time working with Puri Jagannadh.
Despite the fact that the movie bombed, critics praised Ileana for her performance, calling her a “pleasant surprise in the film” who “cry(ed), smirked, looked hot, grabbed sympathy and made faces that were apt to the scenes.”
Another reviewer for Cinegoer noted that the movie had “one bright spot, Ileana, she looks stunning and also like an accomplished senior to the hero.” D’Cruz remained the highest-paid actress in South India despite her recent setbacks.
In early 2012, she starred in the Tamil film Nanban directed by S. Shankar, a remake of the 2009 Hindi film 3 Idiots. The film opened to high positive reviews from critics praising the performance.
It became a major financial success, grossing ₹400 million (US$5.0 million) at the box office on its first week. Her next release was the action comedy Julayi, written and directed by Trivikram Srinivas. D’cruz was featured as Madhu opposite Allu Arjun.
The film opened to positive reviews and became the third biggest hit in 2012 and biggest hit in Telugu. She then starred in Puri Jagannadh’s comedy Devudu Chesina Manushulu. In this film she played the role of a taxi driver.
The film received mixed reviews and eventually under-performed at the box office.
With Anurag Basu’s Barfi, D’Cruz made her Hindi film debut! She not only acted as the narrator but also as Shruti Ghosh, a young woman who abandons her real love in favor of worldly trappings.
The movie debuted on September 14, 2012, to overwhelmingly positive critical reviews. It was a huge commercial success, grossing 1.75 billion (US$22 million) globally. D’Cruz’s performance earned favorable reviews, winning her the Filmfare Best Female Debut Award and a nomination for Best Supporting Actress.
“This is Ileana’s first film, but her fantastic performance is just a testament why the Telugu audience considers her a superstar,” stated Rachit Gupta from Filmfare. She outshines even the picturesque hills of Darjeeling in terms of beauty, which is of course helpful.
In her Hindi feature debut, Ileana “leaves a lasting impression, conveying both love and pain through those beautiful, expressive eyes,” according to Rajeev Masand.
The movie was selected as India’s official entry for the Oscars and screened at the Busan International Film Festival and Marrakech International Film Festival.
She next appeared in the Rajkumar Santoshi action comedy film Phata Poster Nikhla Hero opposite Shahid Kapoor. The film released on 20 September 2013 to mixed reviews, and the film was eventually declared a poor grosser at the box office.
However, D’Cruz received mixed reviews for her performance, with the Times of India saying that she was “good with emotions but not so tuned into comedy yet.” In April 2014 she gave a photo shoot for the magazine Man’s World.
Her first release of 2014 was coming-of-age romantic action comedy film Main Tera Hero, a remake of the Telugu film Kandireega, which was produced by Balaji Motion Pictures and directed by David Dhawan.
Featured alongside Varun Dhawan and Nargis Fakhri, she played a role of Sunaina Goradia. The film released to mixed reviews from critics, though it became a box office success.
She then appeared in Saif Ali Khan’s maiden production Happy Ending where she played lead along Saif Ali Khan, Govinda and Kalki Koechlin which released on 21 November 2014. The film met with negative reviews and underperformed at the box office.
She began work on Akshay Kumar’s Rustom in February 2016 after taking a break, and it was released in August of that same year. The movie earned more than 2 billion at the box office, making it one of the highest-grossing Indian movies of 2016.
Ileana received multiple nominations for awards for her outstanding performance as Cynthia Pavri. Both of her 2017 flicks, Baadshaho with Ajay Devgn and Mubarakan with Arjun Kapoor and Anil Kapoor, failed to garner success at the box office.
Ileana D’Cruz Recent work
2018 Raid, D’Cruz’s first release, debuted to favorable critical and commercial reviews. After a six-year break, she signed on to play opposite her regular co-star Ravi Teja in the Telugu film Amar Akbar Anthony.
The movie, which was released amid high anticipation, debuted to poor reviews and performed poorly at the box office.
She had an appearance in Anees Bazmee’s comedy Pagalpanti in 2019. “Ileana D’Cruz looks stunning but has very little to do,” reported News18.
She appeared with Abhishek Bacchan in the biographical crime movie The Big Bull in 2021 as a journalist. In the words of the Times of India, “Ileana D’Cruz as the journalist puts up an honest performance.”
She and Randeep Hooda have finished filming Unfair & Lovely. Additionally, she is working on an untitled Shirsha Guha movie.
Ileana D’Cruz Image
D’Cruz has made a name for herself as a top actor in Telugu and Hindi films. She is a “well-known name,” according to Vogue, in the South Indian film business. She was dubbed “super efficient” by Taran Adarsh.
Cruz “makes the unreal seem believable on celluloid,” according to Verve. She ranked 18th on Forbes India’s list of the most prominent stars in South cinema on Instagram in 2021.
Her first Hindi movie, Barfi!, received a lot of positive reviews. In the Times of India’s ranking of the 10 Most Promising Female Newcomers of 2012, she came in at number two.
She was named eighth on Rediff.com’s 2012 ranking of the top 10 Bollywood actresses. Cruz has a condition known as body dysmorphic disorder.
She has spoken up a lot about “body image” problems. D’Cruz has been linked to a variety of issues. She has donated her clothing and accessories to help Mumbai’s animal hospital renovation efforts in 2013.
She walked the ramp in favor of the “Smile Foundation” and the education of females. She went to a charity event in 2016 for children from disadvantaged backgrounds.
Along with her acting career, D’Cruz is a well-known brand and product endorsement for companies like CavinKare with Akshay Kumar and Clear Shampoo with Virat Kohli. Additionally, she represents the Tourism Fiji brand.
In the years that followed, she made the Times’ list of the most desirable women, placing 20th in 2011 and 21st in 2013. The Hyderabad Times’ 2013 list of the Most Desirable Women placed her at number four.
An Iranian actress named Pantea Bahram was born on March 4th, 1970. She has been nominated for five Hafez Awards and four Iranian Film Critics and Writers Association Awards, and she has won numerous honors, including the Crystal Simorgh and Iran Cinema Celebration Awards.
Pantea Bahram Bio
In Tehran, Iran, Pantea Bahram was born in 1970.In 1988, she started her acting career in theater while studying at the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting College’s school of arts and literature. She rose to fame as an actor thanks to her performance in Mosafer (The Passenger).
The drama “Made in Iran” (“Avazhick”), which Bahram directed in 2005, was also performed in Finland in 2007.
Pantea Bahram Movie
1999 : Zesht o ziba
2000 : Through Sunglasse
2003 : Banoo-ye man
2003 : Tokyo bedoone tavaghof
2005 : Eternal Children
2006 : Fireworks Wednesday
2008 : Sandali khali
2008 : Shirin
2009 : Endless Dreams
2009 : Khabhaye Donbaledar
2009 : Postchi se bar dar nemizanad
2010 : Farewell Baghdad
2010 : Hich
2010 : Tehran, Tehran
2011 : Asb heyvan-e najibi ast
2012 : Needlessly and Causelessly
2012 : Man Madar Hastam
2012 : Migren
2013 : Tabaghe ye Hasas
2013 : The Bright Day
2014 : Biganeh
2014 : Tabagheye hasas
2014 : Tragedy
2015 : Marge Mahi
2015 : The Nameless Alley
2016 : Gozar movaghat
2021: Butterfly Stroke
2022: Killing a Traitor